Non Destructive Testing
The presence of surface cracks can be determined via liquid dye penetrant. X-ray and ultrasonics can locate internal cracks.
Non Destructive Examination
There are several techniques available that reveal different aspects of components. NDE traditionally include: liquid dye penetrant, ultrasonics, radiography, and magnetic particle inspections, along with others. Liquid dye penetrant reveals surface cracks that are invisible to the naked eye. Magnetic particle reveals surface cracks and near surface cracks in steel (magnetic material); it does not work on aluminum (non-magnetic). Ultrasonic and radiography are capable of interrogating the interior portions of the component. Crack or flaw orientation can affect detection.
Hardness measurements can be considered NDE, since the dimple that remains is quite small. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) is also considered as NDE, since the component does not need to be modified after failure as long as it is of sufficient size (smaller the better).
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